Ontology and KOS

Any notation for giving instructions is a programming language. Arithmetic notation is a programming language; so is Pascal. The input data format for an applications program is also a programming language. The person who uses an applications program thinks of its input commands as a language, just like the program’s implementor thought of Pascal when he used it to implement the applications program. The person who wrote the Pascal compiler had a similar view about the language used for coding the compiler. This series of languages and viewpoints terminates at the physical machine, where code is converted into action.

Denotational semantics (pdf) ([local mirror 20191222](https://jjn.ninja/wp- content/uploads/2019/12/denotational_semantics.pdf))

ROBREDO. Ciência da informação e Web semântica: Linhas convergentes ou linhas paralelas? (pdf)